Male Infertility Treatment

Male infertility is a condition in which males affect the child-bearing ability, and the problem relies on the quantity and quality of the male sperm. Various factors are responsible for male infertility, like decreased sperm concentration, difficulty in sperm production, poor motility, functionally impaired antibody production, and many more.

Factors that cause Male Infertility

  • Damage to the testicles caused by trauma, injury, or congenital defect
  • Antiserum factors in which the immune system kills the sperm cells
  • Vasectomy or sterilization process
  • Blockage of sperm carrying duct
  • Abnormality related to sperm
  • Ejaculation problems
  • Anti-inflammatory or cancer treatment drugs
  • Azoospermia (zero sperm count)
  • Hot baths and saunas
  • Stress
  • Blockage of sperm carrying ducts
  • Development of sperm antibodies (auto-immune disorder)
  • Swelling of the veins that supply the testicle
  • Hormonal problems like low testosterone level
  • Family history of a gene mutation that causes male infertility problems
  • Exposure to radiations, heavy metals, or harmful chemicals
  • Sexually transmitted disease
  • Poor lifestyle
  • Consuming alcohol, drugs, and smoking

Tests performed to determine the cause of Infertility in Males

  • Semen analysis- Check sperm, sperm morphology (to check abnormalities), and mobility
  • Blood test- Check hormonal levels
  • Anti-sperm antibody tests- Detect sperm antibodies
  • Biopsy test
  • Ultrasound test
  • Scrotal ultrasound
  • Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate

Physical examination

  • Testicular size examination
  • Undescended testis

If one cannot conceive after having unprotected sex for 12 months, then it is time to consult a male fertility specialist in Delhi at the SJMIVF. The expert recommends some tests and based on the result. They provide suitable treatment that helps to increase the chances of having a baby.

Treatment Options

  • Hormonal therapy
  • Medications to treat the infection
  • Surgical treatment helps correct sperm flow and correct any type of obstructions
  • Counseling therapy helps improve relationships with the partner and helps improve sexual health

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) involves a set of revolutionary techniques that help overcome fertility problems. This include

  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • Artificial insemination

Tips to improve sperm health

  • Avoid smoking
  • Maintain a healthy BMI
  • Avoid spas, saunas, hot bath, and putting the laptop on the lap
  • Avoid consumption of alcohol and stop smoking
  • Eat a healthy and nutritious diet
  • Take the help of an expert


In some individuals, spermatozoa may not be present in the ejaculate. This condition is called Azoospermia. This can be either due to problems in sperm production itself or due to obstruction to the flow of semen during ejaculation. Reproductive tract obstruction can be acquired - as a result of infection, trauma, iatrogenic injury which can occur during bladder neck, pelvic, abdominal or inguino-scrotal surgery.

Congenital anomalies may be relatively uncommon in the general population, but can occur in up to 2 percent of infertile men. Best known condition is congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) which occurs in almost all men with cystic fibrosis.

Two techniques - Epididymal sperm retrieval & micromanipulation have revolutionized treatment of male infertility in the past decade. Men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas defences (CBAVD) or reproductive tract obstruction are now able to achieve pregnancies with use of these advanced techniques.


PESA or Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA), does not require a surgical incision. A small needle is passed directly into the head of the epididymis through the scrotal skin and fluid is aspirated. The embryologist retrieves the sperm cells from the fluid and prepares them for ICSI.


Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (MESA) is used in conditions like obstructive azoospermia, involves dissection of the epididymis under the operating microscope and incision of a single tubule. Fluid spills from the Epididymal tubule and pools in the Epididymal bed. This pooled fluid is then aspirated. Because the epididymis is richly vascularized, this technique invariably leads to contamination by blood cells that may affect sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.


TESE or testicular sperm extraction is a surgical biopsy of the testis whereas TESA or testicular sperm aspiration is performed by inserting a needle in the testis and aspirating fluid and tissue with negative pressure. The aspirated tissue is then processed in the embryology laboratory and the sperm cells extracted are used for ICSI.